A Non-Formal Education Programme Development in Accordance with Paulo Freire and Patrick G. Boyle’s Concepts for Enhancing Knowledge, Attitude and Conscientization for Promoting Local Elections for the Thai Karen Voters

Phaiboon Phowungprasit


As this research was based on Freire and Boyle’s concept which stressed participation of the samples, the steps taken to collect data were interwoven with various samples. The first phase of the steps was programme planning, the samples were the Thai Karen leaders and voters and the area officers, the instruments were the community and target group’s analysis paper, the area officer’s interview paper, the community leader’s interview paper. The following phase was design and implementation, the samples were the Thai Karen volunteers and the learners, the instruments were the pretest and posttest on knowledge attitude and conscientization paper, the observation on the focus group of the learner’s paper, the lesson plan and learning media such as the photovoices. The last phase was evaluation and accountability, the samples were all programme participants, the instrument was the focus group discussion of the programme participant’s paper. Percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test were used to analyze the quantitative data while analytical induction was used to analyze the qualitative data.

The major findings were as follow; 1) a non-formal education programme in local elections which had 15 steps was developed from the analysis of Paulo Freire and Patrick G. Boyle’s concepts of non-formal education programme development, 2) this non-formal education programme made the learners having a higher level of knowledge (t=14.55), attitude (t=11.77) and conscientization (by observation) in local elections, 3) Opinions from the focus group’s discussion about this programme on supporting factors were, for example, that the programme was served the community needs and problems in local elections, that the learning materials were suitable to the background of the learners, and that the participants and the people in the community agreed with the programme. On the other hand, the obstructive factors and problems were, for example, that the teachers were not intimately acquainted with the coding and decoding technique of Paulo Freire’s concept in this programme, and that the programme conducted in the rainy season and in the mountainous area which had the hemorrhagic fever.

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