Pharmacist Service Activities Development : Application of Levitt’s Total Product Concept to Event Based of Patient Demand Practice Environment

Burin T. Sriwong


The objectives of this study were to 1) identify, group and label
pharmacist service activities into pharmacist service construct, and
2) apply and test Levitt’s Total Product Concept Model to the
domain of pharmacist service activities. Data for the analysis were
gathered in winter 1999 by mail survey in Dane County, Wisconsin,
USA. Systematic random sampling was applied in selecting 500
samples from the purchased mailing list. Twenty-nine pharmacist
service activities identified primarily from previously developed scales
for community pharmacy patronage were used in this study. The
respondents were asked to rate the importance of each pharmacist
service activities (of scale 1 = of no importance to 5 = great
importance) and check the experienced box provided at the end
of the importance scale if they had ever experienced it. Factor
analysis was conducted as an exploratory technique to examine the
dimensional structure of the constructs and the designation of
individual pharmacist service activities to measure the dimensions.
Then, total product concept groupings based on extent of
consumers’ experience with each pharmacist service constructs were
applied. The response rate was 58.80 percent. Four factors above
the break in the scree-plot were found to explain 57.94 percent of
the variation. Eigenvalues for each of these four factors were equal
or greater than 1.225. The factors extracted represented four dimensions and were labeled as 1) Non-prescription Drug
Consultation and Monitoring Activities, 2) Medication Consultation
and Monitoring, 3) Medication Administration and Management
Activities, and 4) Educational and Informatic Activities. Based on
Levitt’s model of the Total Product Concept using consumers’
percent experience criteria, Prescription Drug Consultation and
Monitoring Activities fitted in Expected Product/Service
Component. While Medication Administration and Management
could fit well under Augmented Product/Service Component, and
Non-prescription Drug Consultation and Monitoring Activities and
Education and Informatic Activities Dimensions could fit well into
the Potential Product/Service Components.

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