It is fascinating that one of the most awareness bioterrorism agents as botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) becomes a great benefit to cosmetic application and to patients who suffer from agony muscle spasm. This amazing toxin is produced as a harmless single chain 150 kDa peptide by Clostridium botulinum, a spore-forming bacillus, under an anaerobic condition. However, the natural activation process turns this na¿ve protein into dicain polypeptide which is the most toxic substance known to human being. Its toxicity is resulted from a selective blockage to neurotransmitter release from the nerve terminal. The structure and the detail mechanism of action of this deadly toxin are described in this article.
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